Chloride has the power to impact many important processes including stomatal activity, photo assimilate movement, disease resistance and insect infestation, and overall plant growth and yield.
Quick Facts About Chloride
- Plants take up chlorine as the chloride (Cl-) anion.
- Most Cl- in soils comes from salt trapped in parent materials, marine aerosols, and volcanic emissions.
- Classified as a micronutrient, Cl- is required by all plants in small quantities.
- High concentrations of the Chloride in the soil are extremely detrimental to both plant and soil health.
Role of Chloride in Plants
- Photosynthesis and enzyme activation . Some of the enzymes activated are involved in starch utilization which affects germination and energy transfer.
- Transport of other nutrients such as potassium (K+), calcium (Ca+2) and magnesium (MgP+2) within the plant.
- Water movement in cells . Chloride helps water move into cells and also aids in retention in cells, thereby impacting cell hydration and turgor pressure.
- Stomatal activity. Chloride is involved in the movement of guard cells that control the opening and closing of stomata.
- Reduced lodging. Chloride strengthens stems, helping to reduce lodging later in the season.
- Can assist in suppression of leaf diseases.
- Chlorosis in the younger leaves and an overall wilting.
- Necrosis of some parts of the plan.
- Leaf bronzing and a reduction in root and leaf growth.
- Increased susceptibility to infection of various diseases may also occur.
- Chloride deficiency can be leaf spotting (physiological leaf spot) that sometimes is mistaken as tan spot or septoria .
- Chloride toxicity can occur from a foliar application with the symptoms being necrosis on the leaf margins and tips of the plant.
Factors Affecting Deficiencies
- High rainfall, freely draining soils.
- Atmospheric chloride deposition tends to be higher along the coast and decreases as you progress inland.
- Antagonoism with other anions such as Nitrate, Sulfate, Boron and Molybdenum can reduce chloride uptake.
- Sandy or coarse soils with a low CEC.
Nutrient Knowledge Guide
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